Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was among the significant predictors of hospital readmission in older adults with fractures, based on data from nearly 400 individuals.
Fractures in the elderly remain a major health concern, and readmissions are common; however,Lara Cristina da Cunha Guimarães, MSN, of State School of Public Health Candido Santiago, State Department of Health of Goiás (Brazil), and colleagues wrote.
Previous research suggests that readmissions risk may be greater in patients with preadmission conditions including pulmonary and cardiac disease, history of stroke and other neurological conditions, and other factors associated with aging in general, they said.
In a study published in the journal, the researchers reviewed data from 376 adults aged 60 years and older in a trauma referral hospital in Brazil who had suffered fractures and were hospitalized between Sept. 1, 2016, and Feb. 28, 2017. The primary outcome was readmission up to one year after discharge from the initial hospitalization for fracture.
Approximately half of the patients experienced femur fractures (53.2%), and the most frequent cause was falling from standing height (72.9%). The overall incidence of readmission was 20.7%. A total of 30.5% of readmissions were related to the fracture, and surgical-site infections were the most common cause of fracture-related complications.
More than half (58.3%) of the readmissions were related to clinical complications.
In a multivariate analysis, several clinical factors not related to fractures were independently associated with readmission, including a previous diagnosis of COPD, age between 60 and 69 years, a fracture of the femur, and delirium at the time of the first hospitalization for fracture.
Pneumonia was the most frequent cause of clinical complications, reflecting data from other recent studies, the researchers noted. “Elderly people with COPD are more susceptible to infections, such as pneumonia, which was a cause of frequent readmissions in the population studied. The presence of COPD can contribute to imbalance in the pulmonary microbiome, mucus production and persistent inflammation of the airways, and structural damage, which increases exposure of the pulmonary mucosa to pathogens.” COPD also can be associated with cardiovascular, mental, and musculoskeletal diseases that can further complicate and delay recovery from fractures.
The study findings were limited by the potential for incomplete information in medical records. However, the results indicate a range of causes and conditions associated with hospital readmission after fractures in older adults, they said. Recognizing these factors can guide plans for transitions from hospital to home care to reduce complications and readmissions.
The study received no outside funding. The researchers had no financial conflicts to disclose.