Faulty fences: Blood-brain barrier dysfunction in schizophrenia
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an essential barrier of closely spaced cells that regulates entry into the CNS.
Adaptive changes to antipsychotics: How to avoid the consequences
While our understanding of the mechanisms of psychosis continues to evolve beyond the dopamine hypothesis, the key role...
The brain’s Twitter system: Neuronal extracellular vesicles
Twitter, a microblogging and social networking service, has become a “go-to’” for conversations, updates, breaking news, and sharing the more...
Serotonin-mediated anxiety: How to recognize and treat it
Individuals with anxiety will experience frequent or chronic excessive worry, nervousness, a sense of unease, a feeling of being unfocused, and...
Lithium and kidney disease: Understand the risks
Lithium is one of the most widely used mood stabilizers and is considered a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder because of its proven...
Posttraumatic stress disorder: From pathophysiology to pharmacology
PTSD occurs acutely and chronically in the aftermath of severe and potentially life-threatening trauma.
Receptor occupancy and drug response: Understanding the relationship
Most clinicians do not think about receptor occupancy when they prescribe a medication. Most simply assume that if they use a low dose of a...